Jean-Louis Lebris de Kérouac (, March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969), often known as Jack Kerouac, was an American novelist of French-Canadian ancestry and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation.Kerouac is recognized for his method of spontaneous prose. Thematically, his work covers topics such as his Catholic spirituality, jazz, promiscuity, Buddhism, drugs, poverty, and travel. He became an underground celebrity and, with other beats, a progenitor of the hippie movement, although he remained antagonistic toward some of its politically radical elements.In 1969, at age 47, Kerouac died from an abdominal hemorrhage caused by a lifetime of heavy drinking. Since his death, Kerouac's literary prestige has grown, and several previously unseen works have been published. All of his books are in print today, including The Town and the City, On the Road, Doctor Sax, The Dharma Bums, Mexico City Blues, The Subterraneans, Desolation Angels, Visions of Cody, The Sea Is My Brother, Satori in Paris, and Big Sur.